Mergers and Acquisitions_news
Regulatory framework for foreign investment
The Panamanian Constitution reserves “retail activities” for Panamanian nationals. Various statutes have limited the application of the prohibition to activities that involve the sale of goods to consumers.
By statute, the private sector (national or foreign) may not participate in water and sewage services; in other words, these services are reserved to the State. Likewise, electricity transmission services (as distinguished from generation and distribution) is also by statute reserved to the State.
Certain activities in Panama are reserved totally or partially for Panamanian nationals, based on constitutional provisions and regulated by statute. For example, commercial fishing in national waters is reserved for Panamanian nationals. Similarly, broadcast radio and television is reserved for Panamanians, but foreign persons may own up to 35% of corporations holding concessions for those activities.
Another type of restriction in Panamanian statutes prohibits foreign governments from owning land and participating in certain industries. For example, foreign corporates and entities controlled by foreign governments may not hold a majority stake in public service of telecommunications corporations. Similar restrictions are found in mining.
Foreign persons may not own real estate within 10 kilometers of the border with other countries.
Exchange control or currency regulations
The monetary unit in Panama is the Balboa. However, the U.S. Dollar (US$) is the legal tender of Panama and the same nominal value as the Balboa. There are no capital controls or foreign currency controls in Panama. Forced currency is prohibited in Panama’s Constitution and the parties may enter into obligations and establish payments in the currency they freely agree upon.
Grants or incentives
Investments (national or foreign) may qualify for incentives provided they are made in certain areas designated by law.
Individual employment contracts / Termination regulation
- Termination of employment contracts is regulated by the Labor Code, which grants special protection to employees.
- There is a process that can be followed before the Ministry of Labor to reduce personnel based on “economic grounds”, but companies normally carry out reductions without pursuing that process.
Capital gains in the sale of shares are taxed at 10%. The buyer must withhold 5% of the price paid and the seller may accept the amount so withheld as its definitive tax or file a return to obtain a credit for the difference between the amount withheld and the taxed caused by the gain realized in the transaction. In an asset transaction, the tax treatment will depend on the asset being transferred. For example, real estate is levied with two taxes: transfer tax (2%) and capital gains tax (10%). The buyer must withhold 3% of the purchase price, leaving the seller to accept the amount so withheld as its definitive capital gains tax or file a return to obtain a credit for the difference between the amount withheld and the capital gains taxed caused by the gain realized in the transaction. There are stamp taxes that may apply to the documentation granted. The issuance of shares does not cause any taxes.
Antitrust jurisdiction triggering events/thresholds
Corporate concentrations that affect competition will be subject to antitrust review. The threshold at which concentration may affect competition is 25%. Parties to a transaction that affects competition may submit a petition to the antitrust authority to review and approve, which approval may be granted without or with conditions. A concentration that is approved by the antitrust authority may not be reviewed by the authority or subject to judicial review. Without such approval, within three (3) years after perfected both the authority or a court (upon petition by a third party) may review the transaction and impose sanctions (including divestment) if found detrimental for competition.
Signing/closing meeting documents
Closings are ordinarily carried out through the delivery of documents set forth in definitive agreements, including share certificates duly endorsed in the case of share transactions. Payment is usually made through wire transfers.
In the case of asset deals, special documentation, formalities and filings depend on the type of asset. For example, real estate is only transferable through a public deed (“escritura pública”) granted before a notary public, which deed must then be submitted for registration and actually registered in the Panama Public Registry Office.
Gap requirements between signing and closing
In the case of share transactions, there are no such gaps required by law, except for tender offers of publicly traded shares. In the case of asset transactions involving real estate, for example, such gaps arise because registration of the public deed takes at least 24 hours.
Proof of identity and authority to sign
Corporate resolutions in the case of legal entities, accompanied by a good standing certificate of the jurisdiction of incorporation, and passport or other identification document for the person signing. All documents granted or executed outside Panama must be authenticated by a Panamanian Consul or through the Apostille (Hague Convention (1961) on legalization of document).
- Simple contracts are executed by written signature. Public deeds are granted by a Notary Public upon personal appearance and execution by signatories before the Notary Public.
- In the case of simple contracts, written signature by the persons signing on behalf of corporate parties thereof will suffice – ie, the parties validate whether the persons are duly authorized to enter into an agreement on behalf of the corporate party.
- Individuals with legal capacity may enter into contracts and grant deeds by written signature.
- In the case of foreign companies, it is customary to require powers of attorney duly legalized by a Panamanian Consul or through the Apostille.
Notary impact on transaction timetable
Authentication of signatures by notaries is viable and may be obtained during the execution ceremony, provided that signatories are physically present at such ceremony. Post execution authentication is viable, provided the signatory is in Panama and customary identification documents (eg, passport) is produced to the notary.
Changing of stockholders, officers and directors
Changes of stockholders in the books of the corporation may be regulated in its articles of incorporation and/or by-laws. In the absence of such regulation, it is usually accomplished through the Secretary of the corporation, who customarily requires the share certificate and its endorsement in order to make annotations in the share register.
Changes of directors and officers requires corporate resolutions to be submitted to a Notary Public for issuance of a public deed, which deed must then be filed and registered with the Panama Public Registry Office.
Private limited company
Transfer of title of shares is usually accomplished through the Secretary of the corporation, who customarily requires the share certificate and its endorsement.
Execute document in counterpart
It is customary to avoid counterparts in order to minimize stamp taxes, which are caused and payable with respect to each counterpart. Signature pages of contracts may be executed in different jurisdictions to be consolidated in a single counterpart, with each signature being authenticated in compliance with the law in the jurisdiction of execution, including legalization by “apostille”.
Strictly enforced undertakings
Strict enforcement of undertakings will be available soon, upon signing and promulgation (ie, publication in the Official Gazette) of recently adopted legislation that reinstated provisions of the Judicial Code that were repealed a few years ago.
Damages are available.
Required due executions legal opinions
None required by statute, but in cross border transactions (particularly for indebtedness) it is customary for legal opinions (debtor’s and creditors’ counsel) to be issued.
Panama, December 16, 2019. Morgan & Morgan repeated as a leading Panamanian firm in The Legal 500 – Latin America Guide. Banking and Finance, Corporate and M&A, Dispute Resolution, Intellectual Property, Offshore and Shipping earned the top-tier rankings.
In addition, five lawyers of the firm received recommendations:
Panama, November 25, 2019. Partners Carlos Ernesto González Ramírez (Antitrust & Competition), Inocencio Galindo (Banking & Finance), and Francisco Arias (Corporate and M&A) have been included at LACCA Approved 2020, a selection of Latin American leading lawyers in specific areas of law.
Approved lawyers have been personally recommended by members of LACCA, who are all general counsel from the top multinationals and private companies across the region.
More information on http://laccanet.com/approved/.
Panama, January 2, 2019. Partners Inocencio Galindo (Banking and Finance), Francisco Arias (Corporate / M&A), Carlos Ernesto Gonzalez Ramirez (Antitrust) and Mercedes Arauz de Grimaldo (Labor) have been recognized at LACCA Approved 2019, a selection of Latin American leading lawyers in specific areas of law.
Approved lawyers have been personally recommended by members of the Latin American Corporate Counsel Association, who are all top general counsel from the top multinationals and private companies across the region.
More information on http://laccanet.com/approved/
Morgan & Morgan and five attorneys of the firm recognized by the IFLR1000 Financial and Corporate guide 2019
Panama, January 4, 2019. Morgan & Morgan received top-tier rankings in the IFLR1000´s 2019 Financial and Corporate guide in the categories Financial and Corporate and Project Development.
In addition, five (5) lawyers of the firm are listed as leading professionals in their areas of practice:
• Francisco Arias
• Carlos Ernesto Gonzalez Ramirez
• Inocencio Galindo
• Ramón Varela
• Aristides Anguizola
The IFLR1000 rankings are the result of a 6-month, in depth research project by IFLR 1000 independent editorial team who consider three main criteria: transactional evidence, peer feedback, and client feedback.
Panama, September 25, 2018. Morgan & Morgan and sixteen attorneys of the firm were recognized in the Chambers Latin America 2019, guide of the best lawyers and law firms across 20 countries of Central America, the Caribbean, South America and Mexico.
The firm has been ranked in the first Bands within the areas of Banking & Finance, Capital Markets, Corporate/M&A, Dispute Resolution, Energy & Natural Resources, Intellectual Property, Offshore, Projects, Real Estate, Shipping and Shipping Litigation.
Likewise, the publication noted as leaders in their areas attorneys Inocencio Galindo, Francisco Arias, Ramon Varela, Roberto Vidal, Simon Tejeira, Jose Carrizo, Luis Vallarino, Ana Carolina Castillo, Allen Candanedo, Maria Eugenia Brenes, Roberto Lewis, Luis Manzanares, Enrique De Alba, Jazmina Rovi, Juan David Morgan Jr. and Francisco Linares.
One of the clients interviewed stated that “Judging by the results that the firm achieves, I can say that their advice is effective and arrives in a timely manner. I would highlight their availability and technical competence”.
About Morgan & Morgan
With over 80 lawyers and 20 practice areas, Morgan & Morgan is a full service Panamanian law firm, regularly assisting local and foreign corporations from different industries, as well as recognized financial institutions, government agencies and individual clients. Of particular note is our continuous advice for clients involved in all stages of the development of important projects related to energy, water supply, construction, oil, mining, public infrastructure, retail, ports, transportation, among others. Learn more at www.morimor.com.